Volume 16, Issue 5 , September , Pages Original article The evolutionary psychology of physical attractiveness: Sexual selection and human morphology Author links open overlay panel NigelBarber Show more https: Women compete with each other for high quality husbands by advertising reproductive value in terms of the distribution of fat reserves and by exaggerating morphological indicators of youthfulness such as a small nose and small feet and pale, hairless skin. Men’s physical appearance tends to communicate social dominance, which has the combined effects of intimidating reproductive rivals and attracting mates. In addition to their attractiveness and intimidatory effects, human secondary sexual characters also provide cues to hormonal status and phenotypic quality consistent with the good genes model of sexual selection which includes parasite resistance. Facial attractiveness provides honest cues to health and mate value. The permanently enlarged female breast appears to have evolved under the influence of both the good genes and the runaway selection mechanisms. The male beard is not obviously related to phenotypic quality and may have evolved through a process of runaway intersexual selection. Previous article in issue.
The Psych Files
SHARE This is one of the most common dilemmas my patients have brought to me over the past four decades. Though there are multiple variations on the theme, there is one way in which they all are similar: Triangles are stable when all three legs are connected. A floppy relationship triangle exists when the man in question is at the apex of that triangle and the two women are represented by the other two points.
Each woman is connected to the man but they are not usually connected to each other. There are many ways that can happen.
The experiments, published in the journal Evolutionary Psychology, demonstrated that straight women and gay men perceived one another to be trustworthy sources of relationship and dating advice.
Whether it is peahens preferring peacocks with more elaborate trains  or female common chimpanzees preferring males who possess higher social dominance  , males and females of most species display adaptive forms of preferential mate choice. Evolutionary psychologists were among the first to propose similar sex differences might exist in human mate preferences. One way to evaluate whether women possess long-term mate preferences for cues to status-related traits is to directly ask people whether they prefer those attributes in long-term mates via methods such as self-report surveys , and then compare the intensity of responses of women and men.
Negative d values typically indicate women score more highly on a particular preference, whereas positive values indicate men score more highly. Obviously, these findings are not definitive proof that men and women differ in the evolved design of long-term mate preferences. The findings are merely tests of evolutionary-guided hypotheses, and the tests were supportive of specially-designed sex differences existing in human mate preferences.
I have gone after the popular distortions of evolutionary psychology that appear in the press or books e. And I have criticized some evolutionary psychologists for failing to police the speculative excesses of their colleagues. I have seen evolutionary psychology begin to mature with its criticisms and disclaimers of its more radical exponents e.
That is, I think, as it should be!
Psychology of Dating Freud believed that falling in love was, at its nature, a substitute for personal accomplishment. The psychologist Theodore Reik purposed that there are two stages to .
My experience with Tinder has been a positive one, but it hasn’t been for many of my friends, and I believe it could be made much better using the insights given to us by evolutionary psychology. Evolutionary psychology has the answer. Enter Evolutionary Psychology Evolutionary psychology is a theoretic approach to human psychology that seeks to explain psychological traits through an evolutionary perspective.
At its centre, evolutionary psychology holds that there is a universal human nature, which is the collection of adaptations that furthered our genes in the human ancestral environment the environment in which our cognitive processes evolved, approximately , years ago. The field offers fascinating explanations for psychological mechanisms like sexual attraction and compassion among countless others. Our modern environment is vastly different from the environment of hunter-gatherer-like societies in which human brains evolved.
However, many of the same adaptations that helped our genes propagate , years ago still persist to this day. Now that a sweet tooth can bring obesity, people try to control their cravings, and sometimes they succeed. But their methods are usually roundabout, and few people find them easy; the basic sense that sweetness feels good is almost unalterable except by, say, repeatedly pairing a sweet taste with a painful shock. The High Price of Eggs According to evolutionary psychologists, much of sexual selection can be explained by the imbalance of sexual resources between males and females.
Males in most species are physically capable of reproducing hundreds of times per year and until a very old age. Women, on the other hand, can only reproduce once per year and for a far shorter period of time mid-teens to mid-forties. Because of this fact, males are more eager for sex than females. This question then entails a number of subquestions that, in the human species especially, are more numerous and subtle than you might guess.
It is for this reason that chimpanzees and bonobos are viewed as the best available surrogate for this common ancestor. Barbara King argues that while non-human primates are not religious, they do exhibit some traits that would have been necessary for the evolution of religion. These traits include high intelligence, a capacity for symbolic communication , a sense of social norms, realization of ” self ” and a concept of continuity.
The use of burial rituals is thought to be evidence of religious activity, and there is no other evidence that religion existed in human culture before humans reached behavioral modernity. Elephants demonstrate rituals around their deceased, which includes long periods of silence and mourning at the point of death and a process of returning to grave sites and caressing the remains.
Much of the brain’s expansion took place in the neocortex.
Relationships research from an evolutionary perspective has focused heavily on romantic relationships in recent years, and although there has been research on other types of relationships, it is rare that different types of relationships are compared in a functional light.
Dating, Mating and Relating: Additions were last made on Wednesday, May 7, Introduction The purpose of our project was to better understand dating patterns in college age students. Dating is an activity that most college age students are engaged in or are at least interested in. We chose a questionnaire with these questions: Please list the top five characteristics that attract others to you; Please list the top five characteristics that you are attracted to in others; Why Do You Date?
In our research for the project we examined many disciplines including history, sociology, psychology, biology, and chemistry. We also explored how cultural differences and non-traditional couples transgress main stream ideas about dating. This interdisciplinary research led us to a complex understanding about our topic. Dating is a practice that is influenced by the time period, social conditions and constructs, biology, cultural norms, and institutional structures that surround people.
The audience of this education project is our peers who are involved in college aged dating in the present. We hope to provide some background for them to understand why people date the way they do today. We want to educate our peers about the history of dating, and how the social and biological sciences evaluate the practice in modern times.
Evolutionary origin of religions
How to Write a Summary of an Article? Evolutionary Psychology Evolutionary psychologists view human behavior and psychological traits as a result of evolutionary adaptation in response to reproductive needs — much like the concept of natural selection applied to reproduction, or sexual selection. Drawing from this perspective, evolutionary psychologists and professionals seek to explain the differences between male and female dating and mating rituals and sexual attitudes and how they have evolved throughout the centuries.
Evolutionary Psychology. Dr. David Buss has an excellent website where you can learn more about him, his articles and books, and the Buss Lab, where his graduate students study evolutionary psychology. From the great site Academic Earth (lots of free videos from well known teachers around the world), here’s an interesting video of a lecture by Paul Bloom (Yale University) entitled.
Steven Pinker, The Better Angels of Our Nature Big ideas often rock the boat, but few have rocked it as thoroughly as the idea of evolution by natural and sexual selection. The notion that humans evolved from non-human ancestors, through the survival of some mutations at the expense of others, offends countless cherished ideologies. Natural selection insults the religious conviction that our existence is divinely sanctioned, disturbs the progressive belief that selfish competition is a modern aberration, and disorients the widespread desire to find purpose and morality in the natural world.
Evolution stirs up its strongest opposition when used to interpret the human mind in the field of evolutionary psychology. Ever since Alfred Russel Wallace co-discoverer of natural selection first argued that evolution could not explain human mental traits, people have shuddered at attempts to do so. The renowned linguist Noam Chomsky—who, somewhat infamously, rejects the notion that language evolved through Darwinian evolution—has said that evolutionary psychology is virtually useless.
In the media, the field is frequently cast as a right-wing method for preserving white patriarchy. Even some evolutionary biologists, such as the late Stephen Jay Gould, have disparaged it as a realm of barren speculation. Critics generally object to evolutionary psychology for two related reasons. Secondly, since this conjecture often serves to preserve an unjust status quo , the entire field is a dubious enterprise. Now, never mind that a Darwinian outlook is the only way to account for complex biological design, or that most evolutionary psychologists are actually quite liberal , or that a description of human nature is not a prescription for modern-day behaviour.
People are generally not good at perceiving feigned emotions or detecting lies. Older adults judged young adult target photos as healthier, more trustworthy, and less hostile, but more aggressive, than younger adults did of the same photos. Global processing emphasizes first impressions more because the collective first impression tends to remain stable over time.
Solo experiences tend to facilitate local processing, causing the viewer to take a more critical look at the target. Thus, individuals are more likely to have negative first impressions than groups of two or more viewers of the same target.
Of a study, the journal Evolutionary Psychology says, “Male height is associated with high mate value. In particular, tall men are perceived as more attractive, dominant and of a higher.
These primates share a common ancestor with humans who lived between six and eight million years ago. It is for this reason that chimpanzees and bonobos are viewed as the best available surrogate for this common ancestor. Barbara King argues that while non-human primates are not religious, they do exhibit some traits that would have been necessary for the evolution of religion.
These traits include high intelligence, a capacity for symbolic communication , a sense of social norms, realization of ” self ” and a concept of continuity. The use of burial rituals is thought to be evidence of religious activity, and there is no other evidence that religion existed in human culture before humans reached behavioral modernity. Much of the brain’s expansion took place in the neocortex.
The cerebral neocortex is presumed to be responsible for the neuronal computations underlying complex phenomena such as perception, thought, language, attention, episodic memory and voluntary movement. According to Dunbar’s theory , the relative neocortex size of any species correlates with the level of social complexity of the particular species. His study indicates that only after the speciation event is the neocortex large enough to process complex social phenomena such as language and religion.
The study is based on a regression analysis of neocortex size plotted against a number of social behaviors of living and extinct hominids. The manufacture of complex tools requires creating a mental image of an object which does not exist naturally before actually making the artifact. Furthermore, one must understand how the tool would be used, that requires an understanding of causality.
However, recent studies of other primates indicate that causality may not be a uniquely human trait. For example, chimpanzees have been known to escape from pens closed with multiple latches, which was previously thought could only have been figured out by humans who understood causality.