White’s Castle , Ireland Castles have played an important military, economic and social role in Great Britain and Ireland since their introduction following the Norman invasion of England in Although a small number of castles had been built in England in the s, the Normans began to build motte and bailey and ringworks castles in large numbers to control their newly occupied territories in England and the Welsh Marches. During the 12th century the Normans began to build more castles in stone, with characteristic square keeps that played both military and political roles. Royal castles were used to control key towns and the economically important forests , while baronial castles were used by the Norman lords to control their widespread estates. David I invited Anglo-Norman lords into Scotland in the early 12th century to help him colonise and control areas of his kingdom such as Galloway ; the new lords brought castle technologies with them and wooden castles began to be established over the south of the kingdom. Following the Norman invasion of Ireland in the s, under Henry II , castles were established there too. Castles continued to grow in military sophistication and comfort during the 12th century, leading to a sharp increase in the complexity and length of sieges in England. While in Ireland and Wales castle architecture continued to follow that of England, after the death of Alexander III the trend in Scotland moved away from the construction of larger castles towards the use of smaller tower houses. The tower house style would also be adopted in the north of England and Ireland in later years. In North Wales Edward I built a sequence of militarily powerful castles after the destruction of the last Welsh polities in the s.

York floods 2015: How the devastating floods unfolded and how York rallied superbly

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Founding partner Phil Shackleton said: At a time when many retailers are shutting their doors for the last time Hannah and partner John Paul have opened a new store on Cheltenham Parade for under 12s.

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Over the coming months, many people nominated unsung heroes for recognition, and The Press and City of York Council teamed up to present 50 York and District Medals. By the morning of Tuesday 29 December, most businesses were beginning the clean-up. Technical Water Rescue teams in breathing apparatus went into the flooded basement of the Foss Barrier to retrieve the electrical cabling, to accelerate the repair work.

Deputy chief constable Tim Madgwick said on December Around homes and businesses have been directly affected by flooding in the city centre. The Ouse on December The Environment Agency said on the night of December Work on the Foss Barrier has been ongoing throughout much of People were urged to contact friends and neighbours, or vulnerable relatives in the affected areas.

Ahead of the worst of the flood, earlier warnings had been issued for the Ouse at Clifton and the Foss at Huntington Road and Foss Island. A64 closed eastbound from A to B near York, local diversion in place and there are no long delays. The group meets only when the River Ouse levels reach, or are expected to reach, 4. Water Lane, Clifton this afternoon.

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Hazel Blair blogs about her latest trip to the town the hermit made his home, where she delivered a public talk as part of a year-long programme of commemorative celebrations. I delivered a talk about stories — medieval stories about saints, and about St Robert of Knaresborough, in particular. Hoping to draw in and engage a wide range of people, my combined presentation and workshop assumed no prior knowledge of the history of the medieval period.

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Period detached property with four bedrooms Lounge, dining area and sitting room Elevated with views over the village Private terraced gardens Early viewing advised to avoid disappointment Property description BRAMHAM Bramham is renowned for its historical park and annual horse trials but also for its ease of access for commuting. The Market Town of Wetherby offers excellent shopping, schooling and sporting facilities including swimming pool and golf courses and the village has its own school, shop, public houses, parish church and garage.

The property is located on the right hand side. THE PROPERTY With the original cottage reputedly dating from the 17th century, Hillside Cottage sympathetically combines original period features with more modern extensions and refinements to provide a charming character cottage with gas central heating and part double glazing and in further detail comprises: Secondary double glazed windows to two sides, double radiator, attractive fireplace with coal effect gas fire, recessed shelving.

Loft access, radiator, cloaks cupboard. The front garden with stone walls and steps leading round to the side and rear gardens which are well laid out with a variety of bushes and shrubs, passing a fern garden to the side, following the stone flagged steps into the ”secret” rear garden, having lawns and borders, abundance of bushes and shrubs, sheltered patio area, fruit garden with apple trees and rhubarb, hen run.

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Audio commentary Citation a Context and processes Among the articles of the barons the equivalent of this clause is placed fifth, and there is no obvious reason for its occurring where it does. But in Magna Carta the purpose of Clause 9 is made clearer by its being placed immediately before two other clauses relating to debt, in both cases those owed to Jews, and it also contains some small but possibly significant differences in content from Article 5. But this second addition may also show an awareness on the part of those drafting the Charter that rents had relatively recently — between about and — come under the protection of novel disseisin,1 and had thus acquired a legal status which they seemingly did not have before, one that made it appropriate for them to be treated in the same way as free land when the holder of both was distrained for debt.

Clause 9 does not state in so many words that it is concerned with debts to the king, and its drafters may have had in mind the possible need to control the activities of royal officials collecting money owed to private individuals who had persuaded or paid the crown to put its coercive powers at their disposal. Earlier historians have commented on the relatively relaxed treatment allowed to crown debtors under Henry II,2 and this is given semi-official confirmation by the Dialogus, seemingly largely written in the s, which meticulously hedged with restrictions the goods which could be taken in distraint for what was owed to the king, and made no clear provision for the seizure of lands except in the case of townspeople.

That a much tougher line could henceforth be taken against anyone who owed the king money was spelt out in an ordinance issued at Windsor after Easter Much of the ordinance was concerned to ensure that these stewards were themselves men of sufficient substance to be able to pay the sums required of their lords, who had presumably been slowing down, or simply preventing, the payment of their debts by dealing with the exchequer through men who did not have the means needed to meet its demands.

Since transactions over land featured prominently, and expensively, among the dealings of the king with the upper echelons of society, this new provision gave the king a potent means of leverage against anyone who owed him money for this reason and subsequently incurred his displeasure, a leverage which could be all the more effectively deployed because procedure would be according to the law of the exchequer, over which the king exercised close control.

The amount each man was required to guarantee was recorded, suggesting that these were men of widely differing means — some were responsible for up to marks, many for fifty or sixty, but some for less than ten. A broad range of landowning society thus came under pressure, in line with exchequer policy which clearly aimed to spread the burden of payment, and also, perhaps, of submission to royal demands.

This sum was guaranteed by literally hundreds of sureties; the abbess of Wherwell underwrote five marks, the prior of Winchester ten, Arnold the vintner of Southwark as much as twenty, but many people were pledges for sums between 6s. The dangers, and expense, became no less great for baronial stewards. Any confidence they may have felt about exchequer complaisance must have been quickly dispelled, for within a year they had all made significant progress towards paying what they owed, with two clearing their debts entirely and the other five one of them helped by a pardon for marks reducing them by at least half.

Thomas of Langley, owing just marks and a palfrey in the same year for the keepership of Wychwood forest in Oxfordshire, also had to offer all his lands and chattels as pledges for payment.

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Bronley , Brunley and commonly Brumleye [5] Origins[ edit ] Stone Age flint tools and weapons have been found on the moors around the town, [4] as have numerous tumuli , stone circles , and some hill forts see: Castercliff , which dates from around BC. Modern-day Back Lane, Sump Hall Lane and Noggarth Road broadly follow the route of a classic ridgeway running east-west to the north of the town, suggesting that the area was populated during pre-history and probably controlled by the Brigantes.

Limited coin finds indicate a Roman presence, but no evidence of a settlement has been found in the town.

Mr Nelson said: “Mark Cavenish has local connections and talking with Antony Robinson of the Lift Agency, Mark’s creative team based here in Harrogate, we wanted to do something special, something that wasn’t just a banner.

Humber Bridge — The Humber Bridge, near Kingston upon Hull, England, is a 2, metre single-span suspension bridge, which opened to traffic on 24 June It was the longest of its type in the world when opened and it spans the Humber between Barton-upon-Humber on the south bank and Hessle on the north bank, connecting the East Riding of Yorkshire and North Lincolnshire. When it opened in both sides of the bridge were in the county of Humberside until its dissolution in The bridge itself can be seen for miles around and as far as Patrington in the East Riding of Yorkshire, as of , the bridge carried an average of , vehicles per week.

Until the mid s, the south was via the single-carriageway A The journey was a series of straight single-carriageway roads across foggy moors interrupted by predictable bottlenecks for most of the journey to Blyth, Nottinghamshire, where it met the A1. The accident rate was high, and the journey of most of Hulls traffic was similar to that faced by much of Lincolnshires drivers today.

Debates in Parliament were held on the low standard of the route across the wind-swept plains around Goole. It not unexpected that under conditions, a Humber Bridge, with connecting dual-carriageway approach roads. The obvious need for a Humber Bridge had largely been tempered by the late s with the much-improved motorway infrastructure of the region, although welcome, the timing of these improvements would detract any significant levels of traffic needing to cross a bridge from Hessle to Barton.

The Humber Bridge would be a victim of the M62s success, there was also a short-lived hovercraft service, Minerva and Mercury linked Hull Pier and Grimsby Docks from February to October , but suffered frequent mechanical failures. Plans for a bridge were drawn up in the s, and were revised in The Humber Bridge Act, promoted by Kingston Upon Hull Corporation, was passed in and this established the Humber Bridge Board to manage and raise funds to build the bridge and buy the land required for the approach roads.

However, raising the necessary funding proved impossible until the Hull North by-election, to save his government, Labour Prime Minister Harold Wilson prevailed upon his Minister of Transport Barbara Castle to sanction the building of the bridge.


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Forsyth, of Knaresborough Road, Harrogate, has a string of other sex offences dating back to the s and s for indecent assault and indecent exposure. Kenton Sergeant, mitigating, said: “The defendant wants to say to the court and to the complainant that he is now not the same person as he was then and he deeply regrets his past.”.

Bodmin Moor became a centre of these sightings with occasional reports of mutilated slain livestock: A long held hypothesis suggested the possibility that alien big cats at large in the United Kingdom could have been imported as part of private collections or zoos, later escaped or set free. An escaped big cat could not be reported to the authorities due to the illegality of owning and importing the animals.

The Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food decided to conduct an official investigation in The study’s findings decided there was “no verifiable evidence” of exotic felines loose in Britain, and that the mauled farm animals could have been attacked by common indigenous species. The report stated that “the investigation could not prove that a ‘big cat’ is not present.

The names Yeti and Meh-Teh are commonly used by the people indigenous to the region, and are part of their history and mythology. Stories of the Yeti first emerged as a facet of Western popular culture in the 19th century. The scientific community largely regards the Yeti as a legend, given the lack of evidence, yet it remains one of the most famous creatures of crypto zoology. The Yeti can be considered a parallel to the Bigfoot legend of North America.

Bigfoot, also known as Sasquatch, is an alleged a Mokele Membe the living dinosaur pe-like creature purportedly inhabiting forests, mainly in the Pacific Northwest region of North America. Bigfoot is usually described as a large, hairy, bipedal humanoid.

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The area adjacent to Gawsworth Hall was one of them. All was quiet when we visited. I’m afraid I have been very tardy about uploading the photos, but I aim to correct that in the next day or two, while outside the wind howls and the temperature does not get as high as zero.

Inland connections for smaller craft are extensive but handle only a quarter of the goods traffic handled in the Thames. The Humber Ferries. Knaresborough: Nidd Valley Narrow Gauge Railways. but it is now managed by the Environment Agency, the Ancholme Internal Drainage Board maintains twelve pumping stations on the banks of the river.

Harrogate Water Brands export and new business development manager, Greg Hatton, said: Accessing the Vietnamese market is another significant step in making Harrogate Spring Water a major global brand on the ground as well as in the air. Chamber International does a great job in assisting us with advice and support to ensure the smooth operation of our exports as we continue to build sales overseas and it makes a significant contribution to our success. In , the town produced the first bottled water and by became a major exporter, largely due to a need to keep the troops hydrated from Yorkshire to Bombay.

Harrogate Water Brands, which draws and bottles perfectly-balanced mineral water at its site in Harlow Moor Road, was launched in after Harrogate Council decided to re-start production and put a contract out to tender. Chamber International director, Tim Bailey said: Chamber International helps hundreds of new and experienced exporters throughout the UK with a wide range of specialist services to make exporting easier and more cost effective.

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